24 years ago this year Powersystems became the first fully accredited Independent Connection Provider (ICP) in the UK, under what was then called the Accredited Contractor Scheme; under OFGEM’s ‘Competition in Connections’ and now commonly known as the National Electricity Registration Scheme (NERS).
This scheme is operated by Lloyds Register on behalf of the UK Distribution Network Operators (DNOs).
The NERS accreditation lists both the location coverage and the scope of works an ICP can carry out at the different voltages.
Accredited up to 132 kV, Powersystems high voltage electrical engineering company specialise in grid and network connections and contestable works, offering an alternative to using the local Distribution Network Operators.
For 44 years Powersystems, who started trading in 1977, have continued to build long term relationships with clients to provide the optimal engineering solution.
It is with thanks to our in-house expertise, we provide a trusted point of contact throughout the project lifecycle, which helps to minimise the risk of schedule delays and helps us to maintain project quality, whilst delivering a safe and sustainable solution.
We can assume responsibility for the following elements of a project.
Design of a connection from the ‘Point of Connection’ (POC) to the site
National Grid Electricity System Operator (ESO) has published a report which suggests using shared transmission infrastructure to link UK offshore wind farms to the grid will help save £6bn in connection costs by 2050.
The National Grid ESO now wants feedback on findings of new report as part of government review into transmission network
A so-called integrated approach to connecting offshore grid projects could also reduce the physical infrastructure needed to connect offshore wind farms to the grid by 50% over the next 30 years, due to fewer cables, landing points and network assets required. National Grid ESO said using less infrastructure offers significant environmental and social benefits, but believes transition away from the existing system of point-to-point connections is a post 2030 opportunity.
The cost-benefit analysis has been published as part of an ongoing Government-led review into connections for offshore renewable energy and interconnectors.
National Grid ESO director Fintan Slye said: “Our project is assessing the most beneficial approach to offshore networks, examining a range of different technical and engineering solutions to grid connections – all aimed at ensuring value for money for consumers, facilitating offshore wind’s contribution to the Net Zero target and reducing the environmental and social impact of the connections onshore.”
As part of the ongoing grid consultation comments on the report have been requested and interested parties have until October 28 to respond.
“Initial analysis already shows the potential for significant cost savings and a reduced need for physical infrastructure but it’s crucially important we hear from a variety of stakeholders in this consultation, including coastal communities, developers and transmission owners”, Slye added.
Responding to the report, RenewableUK’s director of future electricity systems Barnaby Wharton said: “Integrating and sharing offshore wind infrastructure will help us to maximise the use of the massive amount of power we’re generating from offshore wind, driving down costs for consumers even further.
“Reducing the amount of electricity works onshore means that any impact on coastal communities is kept to a minimum.
“As offshore wind developers are determined to work closely with local communities and to be good neighbours, this is an important consideration for our sector.”
Vattenfall UK country manager Danielle Lane added: “Offshore wind will form the backbone of the UK’s electricity generation as we reduce our greenhouse gas emissions.
“However, balancing decarbonisation, consumer costs, and local community concerns as we move towards net zero is no easy task, and projects already under development need to remain on track if we’re to meet the target of 40 GW of offshore generation by 2030.
“National Grid is right to focus on how the country’s electricity network can cope with the huge amount of offshore capacity we need, and efficiently connect to multiple generating sites.
“The grid must be able to cope in an era of rapidly increasing volumes of renewable power, intermittent generation, flexible electricity markets, under-sea interconnectors, battery storage, and households both taking electricity from and supplying it back to the grid.
“But this is about more than supplying power to people’s homes – the grid is also the lifeline which will enable industries right across the economy to move away from fossil-fuels and rely on clean electricity instead.”
Feedback will be used to draft three reports which will be published later this year as part of the ongoing government review.
TNEI and Ionic Consulting are teaming up to provide clients across the renewables sector with a one-stop-shop for all grid connection related services.
The companies are combining their respective skills, plus track records in both Ireland and the UK, to provide “unparalleled grid expertise” from initial feasibility all the way through to grid energisation, regardless of technology.
The partnership, which is launching at the IWEA Offshore Wind Conference in Dublin, is well suited to complex needs of the offshore community.
In general, renewable energy as well as energy storage projects of all types are having to deal with more complicated grid connection processes and ultimately more complex physical connections.
TNEI has particular expertise in feasibility studies and complex power system studies, whereas Ionic’s main strength lies in grid asset delivery, with both companies having skillsets in the areas in between, allowing them to offer a full range of services across the entire grid connection area.
Building on their previous experience of working closely together on existing onshore wind farm projects, the team can ensure that optimal design is chosen and that each step of the asset delivery process is managed cost effectively but to the required standards of both quality and safety.
Ionic managing director Ken Boyne said: “This partnership draws on the unique skills, talent and experience of each company to offer a combined offering of real depth and quality at a time when the grid connection landscape is becoming more and more complex. It was also a relief to find a partner with a similar ethos and approach – technically excellent but a team who are easy to work with.”
Ionic has been involved in more than a hundred renewable energy projects in Ireland, the UK and internationally.
Combined with TNEI’s long established and proven expertise in the energy sector having delivered a diverse range of studies and engineering designs for more than 500 projects, the partnership will provide clients with grid connection services of the highest quality.
Both companies have a clear understanding and detailed knowledge of the National Grid Codes and the connection methodology and contestability processes within EirGrid, ESBN, NGESO and UK transmission and distribution network operators.
A short guide to electricity distribution companies and what they do
This guide is intended to provide general guidance only. It is not intended to give you advice on your personal financial circumstances. You should seek independent professional advice if you’re unsure about anything mentioned in this guide or what choices to make.
A Distribution Network Operator is a company licensed to distribute electricity in the UK. These companies own and operate the system of cables and towers that bring electricity from the national transmission network to our homes and businesses.
Unlike the widely known Big Six energy companies that sell electricity to consumers, many of the leading distribution companies are largely unknown to the public. In this guide we’ll look at what they do and who they are.
What is a Distribution Network Operator (DNO)?
Although most people in the UK are familiar with the energy company they buy their electricity from, they actually rely on four types of companies to keep the lights on. These companies make up the UK power network:
Generation: power plant ownership and operation
Transmission: operate high voltage transmission networks
Distribution: operate local distribution via towers, cables and meters
Suppliers: electricity sellers like the Big Six and OVO energy
The company that is responsible for the distribution of electricity from the national transmission grid to your home or business is the Distribution Network Operator, or DNO. These are the people you should call if there is a power cut as they are responsible for the network of towers, transformers, poles, cables and meters that deliver power to your home. If you are experiencing a power cut call 105, this is free from most landline and mobile numbers and will put you straight through to your District Network Operator.
DNO regions and operators
In Great Britain there are 14 different district networks or DNO regions. However, because these 14 regions are managed by just six operators, it is relatively simple to work out who yours is.
The map below from the Energy Networks Association provides a good visual idea of where they operate. If you are looking to work out who your DNO is then check the map; contact details follow in the table below.
Who is my District Network Operator?
The map above should give you a good idea as to who you Distribution Network Operator is. If you’d like to contact them check out the details below from the ENA:
Whenever you connect a form of electricity generation to the grid, you need to inform your local Distribution Network Operator (DNO). In general this is not a big issue, but you should be aware that your responsibilities are different depending on the size of the system you are looking at. Any installer registered with the Microgeneration Certification Scheme should be well aware of these details, but it’s worth being clear yourself:
Smaller systems: If you are connecting a small system (up to 16A per phase or 3.7 kW), then your installer just needs to inform the DNO with 28 days of the system’s commissioning. Such small systems are unlikely to result in load issues for the local grid, so the regulation is relatively simple. For more details consult this guide on the G83/2engineering recommendation.
Larger systems: For bigger systems your installer will need to get permission from the DNO in order to connect to the grid. In many cases this will require a network study (which you may be charged for) to ensure that the local grid network is adequate for the power your system will produce. If the grid needs additional work to cope with the energy from your system, the DNO is required to provide you with a quote for the work within 45 days.
All-Energy 2019 the UK’s largest renewable and low carbon energy exhibition and conference. Takes place at Glasgow’s SEC on Wednesday 15 and Thursday 16 May 2019. Meet Powersystems UK Renewable Team exhibiting this year on stand F51.
All-Energy 2018 was a fantastic success. The two-day conference and exhibition was attended by over 7,000 from the UK and overseas. Coming together to forge business relationships and share knowledge that will ultimately chart the future direction of the UK’s clean and renewable energy success story.
In 2019 representatives from Powersystems 70-strong specialist renewable energy team, will be there in force over the two days to provide commercial updates on; renewable energy technology, (Solar, Wind, Bio Mass and Anaerobic Digestion plants), Renewable Energy Storage, STOR, electric vehicle infrastructure and grid connections. We will meet clients and new contacts and share our 44 year, market-leading renewable power expertise for all your project needs.
Renewable Onshore Wind and Offshore Wind
The announcement of a new Offshore Wind Sector Deal on 7 March which will not only deliver at least 30GW by 2030, but also seek to employ more than 33% women by the same date, more than double the current figure, it’s great news for our industry. And all this whilst helping pave the way to a cleaner, sustainable renewable energy model at a time when the effects of climate change are in the headlines on a daily basis putting the sector center stage in the UK Government’s wider Industrial Strategy – the new deal is a huge boost for developers, existing and prospective supply chain and for the UK economy at large. Speak with Powersystems renewable team about your Infrastructure and connection solution for your onshore needs and offshore projects.
Emerging Renewable Solar Energy Technologies
Research and development continue to improve existing solar renewable energy technologies while identifying emerging innovations; such as photosynthetic-based solar energy technologies and solar enhanced fuels. Innovations and developments in solar renewable energy technology and enhanced fuels will benefit everyone by making affordable and reliable renewable energy more accessible to more UK businesses and households.
There has been a large uptake in the number of solar parks being granted planning consent in the UK. Powersystems has been involved with many of these providing grid connection schemes at 11kV & 33kV. Each scheme is designed by our team of engineers and covers the requirements of the Distribution Network Operator (DNO) substation, site wide earthing and cabling to the point of connection. The whole process is managed, from initial connection application to final energisation and adoption. In the South West alonePowersystems has connected in excess of 100MW of solar farms Photovoltaic ElectricityGenerating Facilities, Solar Photovoltaic Panels and associated electrical infrastructure.
Renewable Energy Storage Growth
Energy Storage is poised for significant growth in the UK. This is due to a resurgence in confidence for renewable energy, making it the cheapest most sustainable power available. Opportunities in energy storage are aplenty. Storage is overcoming the limiting issue of intermittent renewable energy and is widely understood as the missing piece in the puzzle. According to experts the many opportunities presented require careful consideration. There generally isn’t one revenue stream that storage can use to create a viable business model – it’s more about tapping into multiple revenue streams and being creative about how you make the most of your asset.
Energy Storage Insights Discuss with Powersystems Renewable Team on Stand 51
Discuss you STOR project
Hybrid storage getting the best of both worlds
On the grid understanding the regulations, capacity and infrastructure
Applying battery systems to existing renewable energy schemes
The integration of batteries for EV charging points and other smart systems
Grid Connection – From Application to Energisation
As an Independent Connection Provider (ICP), Powersystems have been providing grid connections across all of the distribution areas of the UK. We have carried out a large number of grid connections for a varied clientele, ranging from Data Centres, Industrial Customers, Formula One Racing Teams, Health Trusts, Water Industry, Major Film Studio/Visitor Attraction and the Renewable Energy Sector. Under our full scope of National Electricity Registration Scheme (NERS) accreditation we are able to undertake connection design work, cable installation, cable jointing, substation design and construction, switchgear and transformer installation and testing and commissioning services.
We have civil construction capability which enables us to offer clients a ‘turnkey’ connection service to include trenching works, directional drilling, substation building, construction and design from small 11kV substations up to 132kV primary substations. We also offer a grid connection ENA application and feasibility study service through our engineering administration department, where Powersystems will deal with all aspects of your application and liaise with the DNO on your behalf.
All associated civil engineering works including excavation, cable laying and back-filling.
Powersystems Anaerobic Digestion (AD) – Turning Waste Into Renewable Energy
Anaerobic Digestion can play an important role as a means of dealing with organic waste. And avoiding, by more efficient capture and treatment, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are associated with its disposal to landfill. AD also offers other benefits, such as recovering energy and producing valuable biofertilisers. The biogas can be used to generate heat and electricity, converted into biofuels or cleaned and injected into the gas grid.
Anaerobic Digestion a Renewable Energy Technology
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of a number of renewable energy technologies that have become commercially available to agriculture and industrial sectors. A key attribute of AD is that it offers multiple environmental and economic benefits, particularly for UK dairy and livestock farms. Alongside their potential to deliver low carbon energy, on-farm AD plants also appear to be the most promising mitigation measure for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from manures and slurries. Take a look at a Powersystems Anaerobic Digestion Plant Case Study
Electric Vehicles (EV), grid technology and battery storage
The global market opportunity in electric vehicles is predicted to top over $500 billion between now and 2025. This potential for transformative change creates huge opportunities for both new and existing players in the automotive sector. Speak with Powersystems Renewable EV Infrastructure team to identify how local grid technologies, battery storage and V2G systems can come together to make this happen.
The Future Is Renewable Energy
There are some fantastic opportunities for industries wanting to future-proof and to drive change. The Powersystems renewable energy team see their role to educate and share information on how this is likely to be applied practically over the next five years and beyond.
How is electricity generated from renewable energy?
There are many, many ways that people make renewable energy all over the world. Renewable energy is any energy we use that comes from renewable, natural sources. Renewable means that it’s naturally replenished, so can’t run out. Things like the sun will never run out, same with trees, because although we can cut them down to make biomass energy, we can still replant them, so it’s a renewable source.
Sunlight, water, air and heat from the earth are all renewable sources that we can use to make solar, tidal, wind and geothermal energy. Sometimes renewable energy is also called green or eco energy.
It is produced using natural resources that are constantly replaced and never run out
Just as there are many natural sources of energy, there are many renewable energy technologies. Solar is one of the most well-known, wind power is one of the most widespread, and hydropower is one of the oldest. Other renewable technologies harness geothermal energy, bioenergy or ocean energy to produce heat or electricity.
Equally exciting are new enabling technologies that help to manage renewable energy so it can be produced day and night while strengthening the electricity grid. These enabling technologies include battery-storage, supply prediction and smart grid technologies.
There are many different forms
Most of these renewable energies depend in one way or another on sunlight
Wind and hydroelectric power are the direct result of differential heating of the Earth’s surface which leads to air moving about (wind) and precipitation forming as the air is lifted
Solar energy is the direct conversion of sunlight using panels or collectors
Biomass energy is stored sunlight contained in plants
Other renewable energies that do not depend on sunlight are geothermal energy, which is a result of radioactive decay in the crust combined with the original heat of accreting the Earth, and tidal energy, which is a conversion of gravitational energy
Powersystems remains at the forefront of the Renewable and the Power Generation Industry
With so many projects successfully constructed and exporting power to the grid, whether requiring a turnkey installation, electrical infrastructure or grid connection, Powersystems are an experienced partner in all forms of renewable energy generation project. Growing environmental awareness has heightened interest in all forms of renewable energy.
Solar energy is energy generated from the sun’s heat or sunlight. Solar power is energy captured from the sun which is converted into electricity, or used to heat air, water, or other fluids.
This form of energy relies on the nuclear fusion power from the core of the Sun. This energy can be collected and converted in a few different ways.
Powersystems have connected in excess of 100MW of solar farms across the South West
This technology converts sunlight directly into electricity using photovoltaic (PV) cells. The solar PV cells are combined in panels. They can be put on rooftops, integrated into building designs and vehicles, or installed by the thousands across fields to create large-scale solar power plants.
Concentrating solar PV uses fields of sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats to concentrate sunlight onto highly efficient PV cells located inside a receiver at the top of a mast or tower.
This technology converts sunlight into thermal energy (or heat), which in the past has been used mainly for space heating or to heat water (such as in a solar hot water system).
This heat energy can be used to drive a refrigeration cycle to provide solar-based cooling, or to make steam that can be used to generate electricity using a steam turbine. Solar thermal energy can also be used in some industrial processes that currently use gas to produce heat.
Concentrating solar thermal technology harvests the sun’s heat to produce efficient, large-scale power generation. It uses a field of mirrors to reflect sunlight onto a thermal receiver, which transfers the heat to a thermal energy storage system. Energy can then be released from storage as required, day and night.
Powersystems Solar Energy
Emerging solar technologies
Research and development continue to improve existing solar energy technologies while identifying emerging innovations such as photosynthetic-based solar energy technologies and solar enhanced fuels.
Innovations and developments in solar energy technology and enhanced fuels will benefit everyone by making affordable and reliable energy more accessible to more UK businesses and households.
Powersystems and your Solar / Solar Park Project
There has been a large uptake in the number of solar parks being granted planning consent in the UK. Powersystems has been involved with many of these providing grid connection schemes at 11kV & 33kV. Each scheme is designed by our team of engineers and covers the requirements of the Distribution Network Operator (DNO) substation, site wide earthing and cabling to the point of connection. The whole process is managed, from initial connection application to final energisation and adoption.
Powersystems can perform much of the onsite work as well
Installation of HV cabling and terminations
Design and Build of Intake Substation
Incorporation of G59 protection
Specification and supply of Inverter Transformers
Final Test and Commissioning
Take a look at Powersystems Solar Park Case Study Projects
Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) Solar Figures
In the figures, released by the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS), total renewable generation increased by 9.2% on the same quarter last year to 31.1 terawatt hours (TWh).
As a result, renewables’ share of electricity generation was a near record 35.8% in the first quarter (Q1) of this year, up 5.3% on the share in the same quarter of last year, and reflective of increased capacity.
According to the department’s figures the UK’s renewable electricity capacity reached 45GW at the end of March, a 7.9% increase on a year earlier, mostly due to increased capacity for onshore and offshore wind and plant biomass.
Powersystems remain at the forefront Renewable Energy Industries with expertise in Wind Farms, Wind Turbines and associated electrical infrastructure
The movement of the atmosphere is driven by differences of temperature at the Earth’s surface due to varying temperatures of the Earth’s surface when lit by sunlight.
Wind energy can be used to pump water or generate electricity, but requires extensive areal coverage to produce significant amounts of energy.
Wind power is generated by converting the kinetic energy of the atmosphere into useable electricity with wind turbines.
Powersystems UK projects help connect 24% of all U.K. Land Based Wind Farm generation
Wind is generated by complex mechanisms involving the rotation of the Earth, the heat of the sun, the cooling effect of the oceans and polar ice caps, temperature gradients between land and sea, and the physical effects of mountains and other obstacles.
Wind turbines convert the force of the wind into a torque (rotational force), which is then used to propel an electric generator to create electricity.
Wind energy power stations (known as wind farms) commonly draw on the output of multiple wind turbines through a central connection point to the electricity grid. Across the world there are both on-shore (on land) and offshore (out to sea) wind energy projects.
Powersystems connected the first wind farm at Goon Hilly downs in 1992. In 2010 the turbines at Goonhilly on the Lizard were at the end of their 20-year life cycle. Originally installed in 1992, they were replaced. Figures from the site said that the old turbines generated electricity on 98% of days during their time .The new turbines are rated five times as powerful. All electricity will go into the local wires which serve the Lizard, Helston and the surrounding areas.
The old machines have been running since 1993
It is estimated that there have been a total of 240 million revolutions per turbine and more than 3 billion revolutions for the whole wind farm since it became operational. As well as supplying electricity, Goonhilly wind farm is also used as a teaching resource by the University of Exeter in Penryn, Mullion School and Helston School.
How is wind energy used in UK?
The United Kingdom is one of the best locations for wind power in the world and is considered to be the best in Europe.
In 2017 Wind power contributed 15% of UK electricity generation and 18.5% in the final quarter of 2017.
Onshore wind power has the lowest levelized cost per MWh of electricity generation technologies in the United Kingdom when a carbon cost is applied to generating technologies. In 2016, the UK generated more electricity from wind power than from coal.
Wind power delivers a growing percentage of the electricity of the United Kingdom
By mid-March 2019, it consisted of 9,685 wind turbines (Powersystems has completed 25% of these projects) with a total installed capacity of over 20.7 gigawatts and 12,848 megawatts of onshore capacity and 7,895 megawatts of offshore capacity.
This placed the United Kingdom at this time as the world’s fourth largest producer of wind power.
Polling of public opinion consistently shows strong support for wind power in the UK, with nearly three quarters of the population agreeing with its use, even for people living near onshore wind turbines.
Whitelee Windfarm in East Renfrewshire has just reported serious economic, environmental and social benefits;
It notes that it has generated enough clean, green energy to provide almost 90 per cent of total annual household electricity consumed by Scottish households and businesses.
The report also highlights that the wind farm is expected to provide a boost to the UK economy of more than £1billion, including almost £800million in Scotland.
The wind farm, in a rural location near Eaglesham, was found to have supported more than 4,000 jobs during its peak years of construction while sustaining around 600 jobs each year through its operation and maintenance.
Enough carbon dioxide is saved by the wind farm, the report notes, that it is the equivalent of offsetting two days’ worth of domestic flights to and from Gatwick Airport
Through the Renewables Obligation, British electricity suppliers are now required by law to provide a proportion of their sales from renewable sources such as wind power or pay a penalty fee.
The supplier then receives a Renewables Obligation Certificate (ROC) for each MW·h of electricity they have purchased. Within the United Kingdom wind power is the largest source of renewable electricity and the second largest source of renewable energy after biomass.
Overall, wind power raises costs of electricity slightly. In 2015, it was estimated that the use of wind power in the UK had added £18 to the average yearly electricity bill. This was the additional cost to consumers of using wind to generate about 9.3% of the annual total about £2 for each 1%
Offshore wind power has been significantly more expensive than onshore, which raised costs. Offshore wind projects completed in 2012–14 had a levelised cost of electricity of £131/MWh compared to a wholesale price of £40–50/MWh
In 2017 the Financial Times reported that new offshore wind costs had fallen by nearly a third over four years, to an average of £97/MWh, meeting the government’s £100/MWh target four years early.
Later in 2017 two offshore wind farm bids were made at a cost of £57.50/MWh for construction by 2022–23, nearly half the cost of a recent new nuclear power contract
Powersystems engineers are experienced in Wind Farms and Wind Turbine Projects
Design, specification, installation and commissioning of wind farm switchgear, transformers, cable infrastructure, earth systems and SCADA cabling, enabling the complete installation to be carried out.
On each wind farm site Powersystems carry out grid connection compliance studies, ensuring that the requirements of the connection or grid code are met.
In addition to the on site electrical balance of plant works Powersystems can provide grid connections to wind farm sites, and have done so in some extremely remote and challenging locations.
Powersystems remain at the forefront Renewable Energy Industries with expertise in Hydropower Electricity Generating Stations, Hydro Electric Schemes, Hydropower schemes, Run-Of-River Hydro Scheme, Hydroelectric Generating Station, Pumped Hydro, Storage Hydro and associated electrical infrastructure
Hydropower uses the force or energy of moving water to generate power. This power is also called ‘hydroelectricity’.
Hydro Electric Scheme
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015, hydropower generated 16.6% of the world’s total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity and was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years.
Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use.
The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatt hour.
With a dam and reservoir it is also a flexible source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be varied up or down very rapidly (as little as a few seconds) to adapt to changing energy demands.
Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and in many cases, has a considerably lower output level of greenhouse gases than fossil fuel powered energy plants.
There are four broad hydropower typologies
Run-of-river hydropower: a facility that channels flowing water from a river through a canal or penstock to spin a turbine. Typically a run-of-river project will have little or no storage facility. Run-of-river provides a continuous supply of electricity (base load), with some flexibility of operation for daily fluctuations in demand through water flow that is regulated by the facility.
Storage hydropower: typically a large system that uses a dam to store water in a reservoir. Electricity is produced by releasing water from the reservoir through a turbine, which activates a generator. Storage hydropower provides base load as well as the ability to be shut down and started up at short notice according the demands of the system (peak load). It can offer enough storage capacity to operate independently of the hydrological inflow for many weeks or even months.
Pumped-storage hydropower: provides peak-load supply, harnessing water which is cycled between a lower and upper reservoir by pumps which use surplus energy from the system at times of low demand. When electricity demand is high, water is released back to the lower reservoir through turbines to produce electricity.
Offshore hydropower: a less established but growing group of technologies that use tidal currents or the power of waves to generate electricity from seawater
How does Hydropower Work?
Hydropower is generated when falling water is channelled through water turbines. The pressure of the flowing water on turbine blades rotates a shaft and drives an electrical generator, converting the motion into electrical energy.
Hydropower is the most advanced and mature renewable energy technology, and provides some level of electricity generation in more than 160 countries worldwide.
Hydropower plants range from very small to very large individual plants and vast integrated schemes involving multiple large hydropower plants.
This form uses the gravitational potential of elevated water that was lifted from the oceans by sunlight. It is not strictly speaking renewable since all reservoirs eventually fill up and require very expensive excavation to become useful again. At this time, most of the available locations for hydroelectric dams are already used in the developed world.
Powersystems and your Hydroelectric / Hydropower Scheme Project
Hydropower is the oldest form of renewable energy and Powersystems have been involved in constructing the electrical infrastructure on small scale hydro schemes since the late 80’s. Projects completed include 500kW “Run of the river” schemes and multiple turbine dam storage schemes. In both types of projects Powersystems have completed the full electrical installation package for sites including
Main LV Switchboards
Power and Control Cabling
Turbine Control Panels
PLC SCADA Systems
Head Pond Level Sensors
Test and Commissioning
Take a look at Powersystems Hydroelectric and Hydropower Scheme Case Study Projects
Powersystems Hydro Power Scheme Energisation
Powersystems have successfully completed the energisation of two Hydro Powers Schemes in North Scotland, fulfilling the Gilkes Energy Ltd contract for; design, supply, installation and commissioning of the high voltage infrastructure interconnecting the multiple power houses on each project. The two schemes, Pattack Hydro, a 2 MW scheme with two power houses and Attadale Hydro, a 3.5MW scheme with 3 power houses will now contribute to the UK’s renewable energy targets by generating low-cost, clean energy for many years to come.
Bioenergy is derived from biomass to generate electricity and heat, or to produce liquid fuels for transport. Biomass is any organic matter of recently living plant or animal origin. It is available in many forms such as agricultural products, forestry products, municipal and other waste.
Traditionally, woody biomass has been used for bioenergy, however more recent technologies have expanded the potential resources to include agricultural residues, oil seeds and algae
These advanced bioenergy technologies allow for the sustainable development of the bioenergy industry, without competing with the traditional agricultural industry for land and resources
Biomassis plant or animal material used for energy production, heat production, or in various industrial processes as raw material for a range of products. It can be purposely grown energy crops (e.g. miscanthus, switchgrass), wood or forest residues, waste from food crops (wheat straw, bagasse), horticulture (yard waste), food processing (corn cobs), animal farming (manure, rich in nitrogen and phosphorus), or human waste from sewage plants
Burning plant-derived biomass releases CO2, but it has still been classified as a renewable energy source in the EU and UN legal frameworks because photosynthesis cycles the CO2 back into new crops. In some cases, this recycling of CO2 from plants to atmosphere and back into plants can even be CO2 negative, as a relatively large portion of the CO2 is moved to the soil during each cycle.
Cofiring with biomass has increased in coal power plants, because it makes it possible to release less CO2 without the cost associated with building new infrastructure. Co-firing is not without issues however, often an upgrade of the biomass is beneficiary. Upgrading to higher grade fuels can be achieved by different methods, broadly classified as thermal, chemical, or biochemical.
Biomass is the term for energy from plants. Energy in this form is very commonly used throughout the world. Unfortunately, the most popular is the burning of trees for cooking and warmth. This process releases copious amounts of carbon dioxide gases into the atmosphere and is a major contributor to unhealthy air in many areas. Some of the more modern forms of biomass energy are methane generation and production of alcohol for automobile fuel and fueling electric power plants.
Powersystems Generation Plant Powered by your Bio-Fuels
In an ever-increasing bid to fulfill the UK’s requirements for new renewable energy fuel sources, Powersystems have assisted customers in the design and construction of generation plants powered by Bio-Fuels.
Typically, the generation of these schemes are via reciprocating prime movers, therefore the years of experience gained in Landfill and Anaerobic Digestion (AD) Generation sectors gives Powersystems a lead when advising customers on all aspects, from site layout to electrical infrastructure, ensuring both best design practice and cost-effective solutions.
Take a look at Powersystems Bio-Fuels Case Study Projects
An English creamery is now using its by-products to create biogas in a new sustainable energy project. Yorkshire cheese producer Wensleydale Creamery will supply whey – which was previously discarded – to a local biogas plant to generate 10,000 MWh of thermal power, enough to heat 800 homes per year. Read more here
Powersystems remain at the forefront Renewable Energy Industries with expertise in Anaerobic Digestion (AD) and associated electrical infrastructure
Is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. The process is used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste or to produce fuels.
Anaerobic Digestion Plant
Anaerobic digestion is used as part of the process to treat biodegradable waste and sewage sludge. As part of an integrated waste management system, anaerobic digestion reduces the emission of landfill gas into the atmosphere. Anaerobic digesters can also be fed with purpose-grown energy crops.
Anaerobic digestion is widely used as a source of renewable. The process produces a biogas, consisting of methane, carbon dioxide, and traces of other ‘contaminant’ gases. This biogas can be used directly as fuel, in combined heat and power gas enginesor upgraded to natural gas-quality biomethane. The nutrient-rich digestate also produced can be used as fertilizer.
With the re-use of waste as a resource and new technological approaches that have lowered capital costs, anaerobic digestion has in recent years received increased attention among governments in a number of countries, among these the United Kingdom, Germany and Denmark
Although currently an infant market with approx.650 AD plants at March 2019 we see this as a sector that will grow and plan to be at the head of any expansion, as Bio-Fuel technologies develop.
Powersystems and your Anaerobic Digestion (AD) Project
Powersystems have connected Anaerobic Digestion (AD) generation plants powered from commercial food waste, energy crops, dairy, pig & poultry waste in the farm-based sectors.
We have worked alongside the major technology providers in delivering both grid connections and onsite customer works. Typically these schemes will be cable connected to the local distribution high voltage network and electrically metered onsite, from there a bespoke site distribution system is designed and installed to meet the AD Plants requirements.
This system would usually be comprised of a generation transformer and main Low Voltage (LV) distribution board, providing electrical circuits to the site generation and AD Plant controls.
Powersystems as part of the installation can specify and install the necessary Feed In Tariff (FIT) meters and auxiliary supply meters to enable generation and auxiliary loads to be appropriately allocated.
To date Powersytems have connected over 30 Anaerobic Digestion sites throughout the UK with many more coming online in the near future.
A hybrid technology is one that integrates a renewable energy generation technology with other energy generation systems
Hybrid technologies can reduce the risk for investors and ensure immediate reliability and affordability. They can also support a smoother transition to more renewable energy generation in the future.
What are hybrid technologies?
An example of a hybrid technology would be a power plant which combines and manages electricity generation from at least two technologies.
For example, a plant that integrates solar energy technology with energy from gas, or another renewable source, to provide a combined energy flow that drives the plant’s power generation.
What are enabling (or related) technologies?
Enabling and related technologies are those which use, or more easily allow, one renewable energy source to be used with another.
These technologies are especially prevalent in the fields of energy storage, grid management and connection, information and communication, mapping and resource identification, forecasting and modelling.
Take a look at Powersystems Hybrid/Enabling Renewable Energy Technologies Case Study Projects
Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
These are also not strictly renewable energy resources but are very abundant in availability and are very low in pollution when utilized. Hydrogen can be burned as a fuel, typically in a vehicle, with only water as the combustion product.
This clean burning fuel can mean a significant reduction of pollution in cities. Or the hydrogen can be used in fuel cells, which are similar to batteries, to power an electric motor. In either case significant production of hydrogen requires abundant power.
Due to the need for energy to produce the initial hydrogen gas, the result is the relocation of pollution from the cities to the power plants. There are several promising methods to produce hydrogen, such as solar power, that may alter this picture drastically.
Geothermal energy is stored as heat in the earth
The heat is generated by the natural decay over millions of years of radiogenic elements including uranium, thorium and potassium.
Geothermal energy can be drawn from the hot water circulating among rocks below the earth’s surface, or by pumping cold water into the hot rocks and returning the heated water to the surface. This can drive steam turbines to produce electricity.
Geothermal energy holds the promise of being a renewable energy source that could operate 24 hours a day, providing baseload power for homes and industries. Geothermal energy can be used for heating and cooling purposes. There are a number of buildings, residential homes and swimming pools that currently use geothermal for these purposes.
Energy left over from the original accretion of the planet and augmented by heat from radioactive decay seeps out slowly everywhere, everyday. In certain areas the geothermal gradient (increase in temperature with depth) is high enough to exploit to generate electricity.
This possibility is limited to a few locations on Earth and many technical problems exist that limit its utility. Another form of geothermal energy is Earth energy, a result of the heat storage in the Earth’s surface.
Soil everywhere tends to stay at a relatively constant temperature, the yearly average, and can be used with heat pumps to heat a building in winter and cool a building in summer. This form of energy can lessen the need for other power to maintain comfortable temperatures in buildings, but cannot be used to produce electricity.
Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW)
Powersystems remain at the forefront Renewable Energy Industries with expertise in Waste-to-Energy Projects and associated electrical infrastructure
Waste-to-energy (WtE)or energy-from-waste (EfW) is the process of generating energy in the form of electricty and/or heat from the primary treatment of waste, or the processing of waste into a fuel source. WtE is a form of energy recovery. Most WtE processes generate electricity and/or heat directly through combustion, or produce a combustible fuel commodity, such as methane, methanol, ethanol or synthetic fuels.
With an ever-changing waste management industry, government regulations have forced the market to look at new ways of managing the UK’s waste. A result of which has been the design and construction of cleaner more efficient Energy From Waste (EFW) plants.
Such plants can generate electrical power via steam driven turbines or develop a ‘Syngas’ for turbine or reciprocating generation. In either form Powersystems have assisted customers in cost effective grid connections and onsite electrical infrastructure.
Powersystems remain at the forefront Renewable Energy Industries with expertise in Ocean and Tidal Energy Projects and associated electrical infrastructure
Ocean or marine energy technologies refer to all forms of renewable energy derived from the sea. There are two broad types of ocean energy: mechanical energy from the tides and waves, and thermal energy from the sun’s heat. Ocean / Tidal energy is classified as
Wave energy: This is generated by converting the energy within ocean waves (swells) into other forms of energy (currently only electricity). There are many different wave energy technologies being developed and trialled to convert wave energy into electricity
Tidal energy: This is generated by harnessing the movement of tides. Tides contain both potential energy, related to the vertical fluctuations in sea level, as well as kinetic energy, related to the horizontal motion of the water.
Ocean thermal energy: This is generated by converting the temperature difference between the ocean’s surface water and deeper water into useful energy. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants may be land-based as well as floating or grazing.
Powersystems and your Tidal / Ocean Project
The UK has one of the largest marine energy resources in the world, estimated to be more than 10GW. This along with the predictability of tidal power makes it a form of Renewable Energy that is highly attractive to grid operators as fossil fuel back-up plants are not required. To support this emerging technology, tidal projects will be eligible for five Renewable Obligation Certificates (ROCs) from the UK Government for projects installed and operational by 2017.
Powersystems are actively involved with the construction of the electricity infrastructure to connect marine turbines to the onshore grid. Recent project successes include the 400kW Delta Stream demonstration device in Ramsey Sound, Pembrokeshire, a demonstration device due to be in service for 12 months.
Take a look at Powersystems Ocean /Tidal Renewable Energy Technologies Case Study Projects
Powersystems Asks Can A Country Achieve 100%?
If you think 100% renewable energy will never happen, think again. Several countries have adopted ambitious plan to obtain their power from renewable energy. These countries are not only accelerating Renewable Energy installations but are also integrating Renewable Energy into their existing infrastructure to reach a 100% Renewable Energy mix.