Quinbrook Commissions First New Synchronous Condenser for the UK Power Market

Quinbrook Commissions First New Synchronous Condenser for the UK Power Market

Specialist global investment manager focused on renewables, storage and grid support infrastructure, Quinbrook Infrastructure Partners, has announced it has completed construction and commissioning of a new synchronous condenser installation at Rassau, in Ebbw Vale, South Wales, expected to support the stable decarbonisation of the UK electricity supply.

Quinbrook partnered with Welsh Power in the development of the project from concept stage and with Siemens Energy for the construction of Rassau, which can now provide multiple grid support services including: inertia to strengthen the grid; short circuit power to ensure a reliable operation; and reactive power for voltage control2. Siemens Energy committed to the use of local contractors and specialists during construction and since the commencement of civil works in September 2020, more than 300 personnel have been employed on site.

“We view the UK’s ‘Net Zero’ transformation as an unprecedented investment opportunity with a diverse array of attractive thematics” said Rory Quinlan, Co-founder and Managing Partner of Quinbrook. “Quinbrook targets the next generation of critical infrastructure investment that arises directly from the maturation of renewables as the dominant source of power in the UK. Crucially, our ‘whole of system’ approach puts the emphasis on addressing critical system needs and enablers. By delivering innovative and high-impact investments such as the Rassau Synchronous Condenser, our aim is to enable more renewables capacity to be built in the UK, thereby directly contributing to carbon emissions reduction and real progress towards Net Zero. Rassau is an excellent and timely example of how the energy transition has moved well beyond wind and solar. Additionally, by creating substantial employment opportunities and investment in the communities around the locations of Rassau and the wider Pathfinder portfolio we are proposing, we have the ability to directly support the UK Government’s levelling up agenda to reduce geographic inequality across the country.”

Historically, grid stability in the UK’s power systems has been maintained by large synchronous power plants predominantly fuelled by carbon-intensive coal and gas. These older fossil plants are being phased out and non-synchronous renewable generators, such as wind and solar, pose new reliability challenges as they do not possess the same grid stabilising properties. Due to the rapid proliferation of renewables across the UK, National Grid launched the Pathfinder Programme to source new ways to provide critical grid stability services. Rassau will now offer these services to National Grid using the synchronous condenser technology which operates on a continuous 24/7 basis.

National Grid’s Stability Pathfinder programme offers indexed, long-term contracts to secure essential grid support services from projects like Rassau. The projects that secured a contract in National Grid’s Phase 1 of the Pathfinder Programme6 are expected to collectively save consumers up to GBP 128 million over six years.

The Rassau synchronous condenser project adds to Quinbrook’s recent investments in UK companies all strategically supporting the energy transition including Flexitricity and Habitat Energy and solidifies Quinbrook’s early move into the supply of critical flexible capacity, storage and grid support infrastructure that enables more variable and weather-dependent renewables capacity to be safely accommodated on the UK power grid.

Renewable energy storage projects handed funding boost

Renewable energy storage projects handed funding boost

Nearly £7m in government funding has been awarded to projects across the UK to support the development of new energy storage technologies.

Energy storage will be crucial as the UK transitions towards cheap, clean, domestically produced renewable energy. Maximising the potential of renewables will help lower costs in the shift to a greener energy system.

The intermittent nature of renewables such as solar and wind power means that energy can be produced when it is not needed, such as during extended periods of high wind. However, as new technologies are developed, this energy can be stored for longer, helping manage electricity generation variations and increasing resilience, while also maximising value for money.

Twenty-four projects based across the UK have been awarded the first round of funding through the ‘Longer Duration Energy Storage competition’, which is worth £68m in total. These projects will benefit from a share of over £6.7m to develop new energy-storage technologies that can use stored energy as heat, electricity or as a low-carbon energy carrier like hydrogen.

Ranging from the development of thermal batteries to converting energy to hydrogen, the projects have been selected because of their potential to improve technology performance and reduce the cost of meeting net zero. Successful projects could benefit from a greater tranche of funding from a second phase of the competition, which will support these projects towards commercialisation, encouraging private investment and creating new jobs.

Greg Hands, energy and climate change minister, said: “Driving forward energy storage technologies will be vital in our transition towards cheap, clean and secure renewable energy.

“It will allow us to extract the full benefit from our home-grown renewable energy sources, drive down costs and end our reliance on volatile and expensive fossil fuels. Through this competition we are making sure the country’s most innovative scientists and thinkers have our backing to make this ambition a reality.”

As part of the UK government’s commitment to reach net zero, the transition to clean, renewable energy is being accelerated, shifting to a green electricity grid by stepping up the use of clean energy sources such as wind and solar power.

The aim is to reduce the UK’s dependence on expensive fossil fuels, as well as providing cheaper energy to consumers. It could also mean that more of the UK’s energy is produced domestically. The green energy transition involves ensuring the UK’s electricity infrastructure can cope with greater shares of renewables, while meeting power demands securely.

The £6.7m funding has been awarded under Phase 1 of the ‘Longer Duration Energy Storage Demonstration’ competition, part of the government’s £1bn ‘Net Zero Innovation Portfolio’. Phase 2 will see the remainder of the £68m funding awarded to several of the most promising Phase 1 projects, to proceed to build and demonstrate their technology fully. Selecting projects for the next stage will take place upon the completion of Phase 1, whereby projects will be assessed based on their potential to commercialise their technologies.

Energy storage projects receiving Phase 1 funding include:

  • Sunamp’s EXTEND project, East Lothian, Scotland – this will receive £149,893 for a feasibility study to further develop the storage duration of its thermal batteries. The project will look to pair its heat batteries with household energy systems to tackle periods of low renewables generation on the grid.
  • Cheesecake Energy’s FlexiTanker project, Nottingham, England – this will receive £139,411 to develop its thermal and compressed-air energy storage technology to integrate more renewables into the grid, helping to fast-track the decarbonisation of the UK electricity system.
  • B9 Energy Storage’s Ballylumford Power-to-X project, Larne, Northern Ireland – this will receive £986,082 to mobilise an innovative 20MW Power-to-X project at Ballylumford. Green hydrogen produced by electrolysers will be stored in underground salt caverns and used for transport and to displace natural gas in fuel-blending trials. This project paves the way for future large-scale deployments connected to offshore wind farms.

Andrew Bissell, chief executive officer, Sunamp, said: “For the past decade, we have focused on decarbonising hot water and have delivered a world-beating 20,000 heat batteries using our phase change material into the market so far and we are now bringing forward our Central Bank products for heat. Our thermal storage technology can be combined with heat pumps to deliver more than twice as much heat per unit of electricity on demand than direct electric heating.

“This funding will accelerate how we can further enhance thermal storage duration, working with wind energy from the grid and solar PV in homes, to provide heat and water during extended intervals of low renewables generation when green power is not available on the grid, eventually reducing the overall cost of operation to be lower than gas.”

A full list of the projects receiving funding under Phase 1 is available online.

24 GW of long duration electricity storage needed to integrate wind power into net zero electricity system

24 GW of long duration electricity storage needed to integrate wind power into net zero electricity system

A new report from Aurora Energy Research shows that up to 24GW of long duration electricity storage (LDES) could be needed to integrate wind power into a secure net zero electricity system. This is equivalent to eight times the current installed capacity.

The UK’s net zero strategy to decarbonise the power system fully by 2035 is subject to security of supply being maintained.With gas-fired generation currently the main flexible resources available to balance intermittent solar and wind, Aurora’s report finds this target is unachievable without urgent investment in viable low-carbon alternatives.  

LDES can provide flexible but reliable capacity enabling increased utilisation of renewables, enhanced system stability and resilience, according to the Long duration electricity storage in GB report. 

LDES include pumped storage and a range of innovative new technologies that can store electricity for four hours or more in order to supply firm, flexible and fast responding energy that is valuable for managing a high renewables system 

Aurora’s report demonstrates the benefits LDES could provide to the GB energy system by contributing towards security of supply and reducing emissions, costs and reliance on gas.

The need for LDES has been recognised by policymakers but at present, high upfront costs, long lead times, a lack of revenue certainty and missing market signals, lead to underinvestment, the report concludes.

Policy support and market reforms can provide revenue certainty and address missing markets to recognise the full value of LDES to enable the deployment of LDES projects. 

Aurora Energy Research head of commissioned projects for Western Europe Felix Chow-Kambitsch said: “The UK’s Net Zero strategy has accelerated the deployment of wind and solar, and this has resulted in a large requirement for Long Duration Electricity Storage to balance the intermittent renewables. 

Aurora’s report demonstrates the importance of LDES in facilitating the UK’s decarbonisation targets.

“LDES provides a valuable contribution to system security and operability in a high renewables energy system.

“In addition to providing low carbon firm capacity, LDES technologies also provide a wide range of balancing and ancillary services to help manage the electricity network.”

SSE Renewables managing director Stephen Wheeler added: “Cost-effectively and securely decarbonising the UK’s electricity system by 2035 will require a range of flexible home-grown long duration storage technologies.  

This timely study by Aurora finds that to achieve the government’s ambition, an eight-fold increase in long duration storage capacity is needed.

“This amount of storage capacity will not only play a major role in reducing emissions, but also significantly reduce the UK’s reliance on imported gas and in return, keep household energy bills lower and less volatile. 

The introduction of a new policy mechanism such as the Cap and Floor could unlock the investment required in projects such as our 1500MW Coire Glas pumped storage project which has the standalone capability to more than double the UK’s total electricity storage capacity and significantly scale up system flexibility.”

National Grid gets renewables grid stability option

National Grid gets renewables grid stability option

National Grid ESO is to procure grid stability services from renewable generators for the first time.

From today wind, wave and solar generators will be able to offer the kind of stability services which have traditionally been delivered by conventional generators.

The move is seen as crucial to decarbonising the power system and enabling net zero, according to National Grid ESO.

It has been facilitated by a “game changing” modification to the GB Grid Code – the rulebook that sets the specification for everything that connects to the grid.

This Grid Code change sets a specification for “grid forming” or virtual synchronous machine capability which will enable renewable generators across Britain and interconnectors to compete to provide stability services alongside operators of synchronous generation.

National Grid ESO’s markets team Tony Johnson, who led the project, said: “This is a breakthrough moment, a key piece in the energy transition jigsaw, that will ensure we can operate a fully decarbonised grid and deliver on our net zero commitments.

“It’s the culmination of up to 10 years of thinking and working with stakeholders to find the common ground between what equipment is capable of doing and what the system needs.

“It also ensures that as we transition away from conventional fossil fuelled generation, we can operate the grid securely and efficiently, which will ultimately save consumers money.”

The code change means interested stakeholders can now prepare their equipment to meet the required specification to be able to participate in the procurement process for system services including providing inertia and frequency support.

This is currently being progressed through National Grid ESO’s stability pathfinder projects.

Having a stable grid is crucial to delivering a reliable electricity supply.

It ensures a steady frequency of 50Hz is maintained and voltages don’t fluctuate which also protects equipment.

“Grid forming” ability allows converter connected equipment (equipment connected to the network through a HVDC converter, such as renewable generation or interconnectors) to provide system stability support in a similar way to conventional generators that are directly connected to the transmission system.

It is achieved by the converter’s control system responding very quickly to system conditions which simulates the response of traditional plant.

This supports the transition of the system away from conventional fossil fuelled generation, ensures continued system security as this transition takes place and saves consumers money by helping the ESO to efficiently operate the system.

Britain is the first country to have achieved this step, which is being watched with interest by system operators and manufacturers around the world.

Offshore wind energy will be a game-changer for Scotland

Offshore wind energy will be a game-changer for Scotland

Offshore wind power is the game-changer for Scotland’s sustainable ambitions. With the technology and the economics already proven, the winds of investment are blowing hard offshore and there is real confidence that Scottish and UK targets can be met.

The UK has just over 10 GW of offshore wind power in operation; its target is 40 GW by 2030. Scotland’s target is 11 GW by 2030, with 2GW currently constructed.

“If we can hit these offshore wind targets, that’s a game-changer in terms of using green power to heat homes instead of fossil fuels,” says Richard Cockburn, partner and head of energy at Womble Bond Dickinson. “And we probably can do it. We’ve got another 4GW of offshore wind under construction, and just under 24GW in planning, plus two big new competitions for new offshore wind under way [Round 4 in England and ScotWind in Scotland]. They could account for roughly 18 GW, so that’s more than 40 GW overall. The Scottish contribution would help significantly with the 2045 net-zero target.”

However, there are a number of challenges. Cockburn says: “The planning and consenting processes take a long time; there are supply chain bottlenecks, and overseas investors can be put off by the different processes in Scotland and the rest of the UK, which means more resources, more expense and more time. They would prefer one regime.

“We also need to build the infrastructure onshore and offshore to connect everything up. And we will need a few more auction rounds.”

The current auction rounds will not see turbines spinning until the mid-to-late-2020s, says Cockburn. However, this could be sped up because of the number of oil and gas firms involved in bidding. Some of the best-known industry names are moving into renewables – which is positive for net-zero ambitions, but not without other consequences.

“The presence of the oil and gas companies means more financial power behind the bids, meaning that established renewables developers need to fight harder to win offshore leases,” says Cockburn. “The involvement of the oil and gas majors – and their deep pockets – might mean time frames could be shorter for getting blades spinning, but it has caused a bit of a pause and rethink. How can revenues be maximised while at the same time retaining the goodwill of the longer-standing renewables developers?”

Another big issue is making sure Scotland derives greater economic benefits from the offshore wind boom. Paul Kenneth, a real estate and finance expert with Womble Bond Dickinson, says there is more focus on this nowadays – citing the Neart Na Gaoithe (NNG) site in the Firth of Forth, with a potential capacity of almost 0.5 GW. He says: “An operation and maintenance site [for NNG] is being built in Eyemouth, and turbines will be constructed in Dundee, so you will have a beneficial effect [in Scotland] from these operations.”

Cockburn notes that GE has committed to building a blade manufacturing plant at the new freeport on Teesside, and says: “We are seeing far more requirements to use local supply chains, and pretty much all offshore wind bidders are committing to have parts manufactured – or at least assembled – in the UK.”

Another important trend is the increase in floating wind turbines, with many more likely to be deployed as developers look further out to sea.

“Until now, it’s mostly been areas of shallower waters which have been put out to auction. In deeper water, including the harsher North Sea environments, floating offshore wind is the best way to do that,” says Cockburn, highlighting two current projects, HyWind Scotland and Kincardine Offshore Floating Wind Farm.

“This is an area where Scottish developments are of worldwide importance, and where skills and technology could be exported. Other countries with harsh coastal environments are looking at lessons learned here.”

Onshore wind and solar are also crucial for the net-zero target, with 9 GW currently deployed and 16 GW of installed capacity expected by 2030. But what is the prospect for expansion?

“There are still high levels of activity in securing onshore wind farm sites but a lot of suitable sites have already been developed,” says Kenneth. “Sites now are more often scattered across various land ownerships, and can be more difficult to get to, so you might be dealing with several landowners to construct a wind farm rather than a single landowner.

“Developers are looking to areas like the north coast, which brings in considerations of how to get agreement to develop a wind farm on crofting land.”

Kenneth says the industry is already looking at the next generation: “Planning permissions last for around 25 years and leases 25 years-plus, so there comes a point where many developers need to decide if they’re going to install new turbines or try to extend the lifespan of existing turbines.

“With advances in technology, you can monitor performance and take action for maintenance and repair before catastrophic failure. In some circumstances, re powering will be appropriate and in others, extending the lifespan of existing assets will be the way forward.”

John Boyce, head of wind projects at RES, which manages more than 7.5 GW of renewable assets in Scotland, says onshore wind is increasingly able to do more with less.

He says: “Wind turbines are evolving and we are now able to produce more energy with fewer turbines. Installing the most modern turbines available will ensure Scotland reaps the benefits of great efficiencies and more clean, green electricity generation.

“Often, we find that people get very hung up on the numerical value of turbine heights and we’ve seen local planning authorities placing arbitrary limits, but we think the most important part is ensuring wind farms are designed sensitively.”

He adds: “Meeting our ambitions of net-zero and decarbonising all areas of society will require the deployment of more onshore wind, the cheapest form of new generation. Every scenario from the Committee on Climate Change to the International Energy Agency sees onshore wind playing a vital role.”

So where is the renewable energy revolution heading next? “I think wave and tidal power will become mainstream in the next few years as we have such fantastic resources,” says Cockburn. “The technology is coming on leaps and bounds.”

With so much going on, does Scotland need to focus on specifics, or do a bit of everything?

“There is only so much money available to invest in renewables,” says Cockburn. “That tends to go into proven technologies and ones with pipelines of work. We need to do what’s achievable – and sensible.

“From a human point of view, a lot of jobs in Scotland are dependent on oil and gas, particularly in the north-east, and there needs to be a just transition. Part of that is looking where skills can be redeployed. Carbon capture and storage, hydrogen, and engineering connected with offshore wind, wave or tidal are obvious places for that.”

Greener grid parks help with stability

An emerging and crucially important area for renewables, especially wind and solar, is energy storage and grid stability.

“Rather than having a handful of power stations reacting to supply and demand, there are now many different methods of generating renewable electricity on many different sites,” says Paul Mason, real estate partner at Womble Bond Dickinson.

Maintaining stability of the power grid has become a bigger challenge as more electricity is generated from renewables. Bringing solutions are firms such as Statkraft, which is developing Greener Grid Parks across the UK.

Guy Nicholson, head of grid integration at Statkraft UK, says: “We don’t always get to utilise all of the renewable electricity that could be generated, so our grid must be adapted to the rapid progress that renewable energy has made. Sometimes it’s been necessary to shut down wind farms and operate gas power plants to keep the grid stable. Projects such as our Greener Grid Parks will make this a thing of the past.”
Renewable energy storage projects handed funding boost

Great Britain on track for periods of zero carbon electricity in 2025

Great Britain’s electricity system is on track to be powered free of fossil fuels
and at 100% zero carbon in just four years’ time according to a new National Grid Electricity
System Operator (ESO) report. This is a key enabler for a zero carbon electricity system by
2035, in line with the 6th Carbon Budget.

Data released ahead of the COP26 climate summit in November, along with recent
electricity records, illustrates the growth in renewable electricity generation and
progress towards periods of zero carbon operation of the GB electricity system, an ambition
the ESO first announced in April 2019.

At present its control room needs to draw on conventional power plants (typically gas) to
deliver system reliability and manage properties such as voltage and frequency. By 2025 it
will have transformed its operation of the electricity system, so that when there is enough
zero carbon generation available, it can deliver electricity to Great Britain without using any
fossil fuels.

Since 2016 Britain’s electricity has been over two-thirds zero carbon for 5,000 half hour
periods, over 100 days cumulatively. In 2019 zero carbon sources outstripped fossil fuelled
electricity generation for the first time ever and 1.30pm on 17th August of that year saw the
highest share of zero carbon power ever seen at 85.1% (wind 39%, solar 25%, nuclear 20%
and hydro 1%). Wednesday 12 February 2020 saw the highest ever output from zero carbon
generators– 28.8GW – enough to power 10m homes for a week.

This latest update on progress towards zero carbon forms part of a new National Grid ESO
report ahead of the COP26 climate summit on November which showcases how Great
Britain’s electricity system has decarbonized in recent times, charting the key industry and
policy developments that have made it possible.

Fintan Slye, National Grid ESO Executive Director said:

“We’re confident that by 2025 we will have periods of 100% zero carbon electricity,
with no fossil fuels used to generate power in Great Britain. As with coal free
operation of the grid these may be short periods at first but will still be a significant
milestone on the road to net zero, and these periods will quickly extend.

“The growth in renewable sources of power, with record levels of wind and solar,
means there will be enough zero carbon generation to meet demand. A
key challenge is ensuring the electricity system is ready to accommodate that power.
Our engineers are deploying innovative, world first approaches to transform how the
power system operates, such as removing the need to draw on
fossil fuel based generation for critical stabilizing properties.“There’s still plenty of hard work ahead but it’s an exciting time and getting to this
position has been a huge team effort from everyone across the entire energy

“We look forward to the opportunity that COP26 brings and sharing GB’s progress
towards zero carbon with countries around the world. Electricity systems are at the
forefront of the energy transition and have the potential to be a catalyst to accelerate
decarbonisation on a global basis. Now is the time to come together, share learnings
and bring about lasting change.”

Energy Minister Anne-Marie Trevelyan said:

“The UK is leading the world in cleaning up our energy system and we continue to
break new records in wind and solar power, while coal has all but been eliminated
from the grid.

“Today’s report shows that the industry and the public’s hard work to drive up
renewables is paying off and we are on the cusp of achieving periods of 100% zero
carbon electricity generation with no fossil fuels used.

“There’s still some way to go, which is why we are powering forward with our
ambitious commitments to increase renewable power across the UK and invest in
new, green technologies so that we build back greener from the pandemic and tackle
climate change.”

May 23rd 2020 presents an example of how the ESO must transform the operation of the
power system ready for zero carbon.

On the day, the electricity market provided a near-100% zero carbon solution –
but the ESO’s control room had to intervene to ensure system stability, pulling back some
wind and hydro and replacing it with synchronous plant like gas and biomass which provided
sufficient inertia. That reduced the zero carbon proportion of the generation mix to around
83% over the day.

Its Stability Pathfinder project is finding new ways to source inertia, through synchronous
compensators, hydroelectric power stations or repurposed gas turbines, which means that
by 2025, if the market again presents 100% zero carbon power, it will no longer need to
reduce zero carbon generation.

More recent electricity records and statistics include:

• At 1pm on Easter Monday 5th April 21 the carbon intensity of electricity – the
measure of CO2 emissions per unit of electricity consumed – dropped to 39 gCO2,
the greenest Great Britain’s electricity grid has ever been.
• Coal generated only 1.6% of electricity in 2020, compared with almost 25% five years
• Spring 2020 saw Britain’s longest run since the industrial revolution generating
electricity without using coal, stretching almost 68 days (1,630 hours) between April
10 and June 16.• The record for the highest ever level of wind generation and proportion of the mix
was broken on 21st May 21 (17.7GW and 62.1%)
• At 1pm on Easter Monday 5th April 21 the carbon intensity of electricity – the
measure of CO2 emissions per unit of electricity consumed – dropped to 39 gCO2,
the greenest Great Britain’s electricity grid has ever been.
• Early afternoon on Sunday 11 June 2017 was the first time zero carbon power
contributed over 75% to Britain’s electricity mix.
• The same month – June 2017 – saw zero carbon power outstrip fossil fuel generation
across a month for the first time ever.

About National Grid ESO
National Grid Electricity System Operator – a legally separate business within the
National Grid Group – operates the electricity transmission system in Great Britain,
balancing supply and demand for electricity 24/7.
It does not own or operate any electricity generation or transmission but it’s engineers
and National Electricity Control Centre play a central role in managing electricity, liaising
with generators and regional distribution networks operators. Central to this is managing
key properties of electricity such as frequency and voltage ensuring a safe, secure and
reliable supply across Great Britain.

More on the ESO’s Zero Carbon ambition
In 2019 the ESO initiated a series of ‘pathfinder’ projects to identify and trial solutions to
procuring new services to provide frequency response, voltage, stability, restoration of
power and thermal constraints. This approach encouraged the market to come forward
with solutions – to bring in new sources of capital spend, new players into markets, and
new technologies. This contrasts with the typical approach in the rest of the world
whereby a monopolistic transmission owner identifies its preferred solution and builds it

For example, under the stability pathfinder, Drax has been contracted to provide inertia
through its Cruachan hydroelectric pumped storage plant located in a hollowed-out
mountain in Scotland, Welsh Power is installing a synchronous condenser and flywheel
at its site at Rassau in Ebbw Vale. Statkraft is developing two “Greener Grid Parks” in
Liverpool and Keith, Scotland. These new or modified assets will draw energy from the
grid to power their turbines and create inertia – rather than inertia being a by-product of
producing electricity. So, the same generators can continue providing inertia for the
system, but with dramatically reduced need to burn fossil fuels. It also means that wind
and solar power can stay online, rather than being paid to switch off, saving consumers
more than £100 million over the six-year duration of the contracts.

The ESO’s wider access programme has removed barriers to entry for a wider range of
technologies to access Great Britain’s balancing mechanism (BM) market. The BM isone of the main tools the ESO uses to balance supply and demand on the electricity
system in real-time, alongside balancing services like frequency response and reserve.
Through the BM, providers can offer to increase or decrease their generation or demand
to help balance the system.

‘Wider access’ enables the ESO to accept offers and bids from smaller providers, a
change that will improve system flexibility, allow more renewable power to contribute to
balancing the grid, and bring better value to consumers.

Late in 2020 the ESO also launched Dynamic Containment, the first in a suite of new
fast-acting frequency services to be introduced by the ESO to maintain the system close
to 50Hz – the frequency Britain’s grid must be kept at by balancing electricity supply and
demand second by second.

It’s designed to act rapidly when triggered by a fault on the system – for example the loss
of a generator – with providers, typically battery storage, injecting power into the grid to
catch and ‘contain’ the resulting deviation in frequency


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