Electrical Vehicle Charging

Electrical Vehicle Charging

Electrical Vehicle (EV) Infrastructure

Electrical Vehicle Charging and Vehicle Infrastructure

Powersystems Making Bus Journeys Greener

Supporting strategic partners from the;

  • UK, Welsh, Irish and Scottish Governments
  • Local authorities
  • Distribution Network Operators (DNO)
  • Department for Transport
  • Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership (LOWCvp)
  • Ultra Low Emission Zone (ULEZ)
  • Bus and Vehicle Manufacturers
  • Fleet Transport Operators

To enable the UK to meet decarbonisation targets, improve local air quality Clean Air Zones (CAZ) in city centres and low emission zones in reducing road transport CO2 emissions.

As a leading high voltage specialist partner; delivering electrical engineering excellence since 1977 we have worked across the UK on grid connections, high voltage electrical power infrastructure, and the renewable energy sectors.

Factors for you to consider when upgrading Local Electricity Network for your Bus or Fleet Infrastructure Project

  • We are able to carry out a site survey to advise on the suitability of your existing installation to facilitate the connection of EV charging infrastructure
  • Can the local Distribution Network Operators (DNO) infrastructure support the additional EV charge capacity required?
  • The grid application process with your incumbent DNO, which Powersystems are able to assist with, apply for or manage on your behalf
  • Capacity of your sub-station, where switchgear (both HV and LV), or transformers may need to be upgraded?
  • Timeframe for upgrading work and new connection
    • Liaison with Councils and Highways for S50 consent (street works, opening license) to install DNO cable infrastructure
    • Preparing legal contracts
    • Design and negotiation with the DNO – lead time can be lengthy

Electric EV Infrastructure

Powersystems UK Ltd are part of a nationwide team that design, install, commission and maintain electrical vehicle infrastructure for bus and vehicle manufacturers as well as fleet transport operators.

LowCvp Accredited. Building on the standards set by LowCvp and Government.

Powersystems Approach Supporting You – Power To The Bus

Early engagement is the key to securing grid capacity – As an Independent Connection Provider (ICP) Powersystems have been assessed and accredited nationally by Lloyd’s Register Accredited Contractor NERS scheme to carry out;

  • Design
  • Project management
  • Cable laying
  • Cable jointing
  • Substation installation
  • All associated civil engineering works including excavation, cable laying and backfilling.
  • This accreditation enables us to provide grid connections in all areas of the UK, at voltage levels up to 132kV

Technical expertise and flexible approach – As your grid specialist we have the technical expertise and flexible approach to engage with all DNO’s UK wide with matters relating to capacity and security of supply.

We have an ethos in delivering ‘the right result’ for you. When you need the right solution, we have the technical ability to do this and we always maintain a flexible approach in delivering your project to ensure an effective hand-over to you and your team.

Full Package /Turnkey Solution – We understand the enormity of this challenge, from initial design to final commissioning and testing, Powersystems offers the complete distribution package.

  • Design
  • Network analysis
  • Plant procurement
  • Installation
  • Transformers
  • Switchgear
  • Generators
  • Cable installation
  • Termination and jointing
  • Protection and control panels
  • Testing and commissioning
  • Maintenance and Project management
Powersystems Approach Supporting You – Power To The Bus

From simple cabling installations or transformer and switchgear replacements through to complete substation design and build contract, at Powersystems we’ll give you precisely the services you require, to ensure the success of your project.

Powersystems will support you through the initial application and pre-construction phases of the project, we will ‘hold your hand’ through the journey from budget setting, to stakeholder engagement.

At the delivery stage a dedicated experienced project engineer will be appointed to manage the project from concept to completion through to final handover.

At each stage we will ensure optimum results for you and maximum efficiency – a service we are able to provide at Powersystems.

Fast Charging EV Infrastructure

Electric and Hybrid vehicles

The number of electric and Hybrid vehicles on the UK’s roads is rapidly increasing inline with the Government’s commitment to switch from petrol and diesel to Electric vehicles by 2040, to address the rising levels of harmful emissions in our cities.

To meet these targets the deployment of arrays of chargers means that the electrical infrastructure often needs upgrading and a new grid connection required particularly where ultra rapid or rapid charging is required.

We can engineer a bespoke solution to your charging requirements, be it a full turnkey or a balance of plant solution.

Powersystems are already assisting customers in delivering charging infrastructure solutions, with the following aspects of work.

Grid connections applications

Design, procurement and delivery of the electrical grid connection for the sites as an independent connections provider (ICP)

Design studies

As a specialist electrical contractor designing and building the sites private infrastructure to integrate electric vehicle charging.

Charger Types

There are four core types of EV charging – ultra rapid, rapid, fast, and slow. This represents the power output, and therefore charging speed, available to the driver charging their Electric Vehicle.

  • Ultra rapid, currently being developed with charger ratings up to 350kw being discussed enabling vehicles to be charged in minutes.
  • Rapid –  Are currently available rated at up to typically 50kW, Will charge an Electric Vehicle to 80% in around 30 minutes.
  • Fast chargers cover those with 7kW and 22kW power outputs, which typically charge an Electric Vehicles in 3-4 hours.
  • Slow units (up to 3kW) are best for overnight charging and usually take between 6 and 12 hours for a pure-EV, or 2-4 hours for a PHEV, usually for domestic purposes.

    Battery Storage

    Battery Storage

    Battery Storage

    Battery Storage

    Battery Storage

    With the shift from conventional to Renewable energy generation and policy changes are the driving forces behind numerous technologies, one of these being battery energy storage. It has proven successful in being integrated ‘behind the meter’ especially in the solar and wind industry taking advantage of production fluctuations and grid constraint to maximise energy outputs. Other uses include smoothing the grid to match renewable electricity supply with area demand, time shifting energy delivery to the grid and Enhanced frequency response.

    Connecting Battery Storage To Grid

    Powersystems UK have been at the forefront of connecting battery storage to the grid, having carried out the Mechanical and Electrical works for one of the UK’s early test Commercial Battery storage project in the Shetland isles, in 2011. With many problems to overcome not least the location, the sodium sulphur batteries weighed in at a little over 3 tonne each and there were 20 to install into purpose-built enclosures.

    Battery Storage Full Turnkey Solution

    Powersystems are currently working with various partners that are able to carry out a full turnkey balance of plant package, including civil works, design, construction, supply, installation and commissioning of battery packages, mechanical and HV/LV electrical services.

    We have assisted our customers in delivering these projects across many platforms of the development, whether it be:

    • Client Grid connection applications.
    • As an Independent Connections Provider, (ICP) in the design, procurement and delivery of the electrical grid connection for the sites.
    • A specialist electrical contractor, designing and building the sites private High Voltage and high power Low Voltage electrical systems.
    • As the Principal Contractor on a complete Engineering, Procurement and Construction, (EPC) contract basis, where all the Civil, Electrical and Mechanical elements of the battery storage site are designed, installed, constructed and commissioned by Powersystems, with specialist sub-contractors awarded and managed within the ‘Turnkey’ contract.
    • Read more about Advanced Battery Energy Storage Market

    Battery Storage Systems

    There are performance-specific features and applications for each of these battery systems, however, the goal of energy storage developers is the same: to choose a battery application that will ensure an affordable, reliable, and efficient energy-storage system.

    Lithium-ion batteries

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries were introduced commercially by Sony in 1991 for use primarily in consumer products. Since then, they have become the most widely used battery technology for grid-scale energy storage. Lithium-ion batteries have the versatility to handle smaller-scale applications, such as powering electric vehicles, as well as grid-scale applications requiring megawatts of power for hours at a time.

    Li-ion batteries get their name from the transfer of lithium ions between the electrodes, both when energy is injected for storage purposes and when it is extracted. Instead of metallic lithium, Li-ion batteries use lithiated metal oxides as the cathode (the negatively charged electrode by which electrons enter a device), and carbon typically serves as the anode (the positively charged electrode by which electrons leave a device). Unlike other batteries with electrodes that change by charging and discharging, Li-ion batteries offer better efficiency because the ion movements leave electrode structures intact.

    Within the lithium family there are a variety of different chemistries and designs from numerous suppliers. Innovation and manufacturing volume have continued to yield improvements in cost, energy density, and cycle life.

    For storage durations of 30 minutes to three hours, lithium batteries are currently the most cost-effective solution, and have the best energy density compared to the alternatives. For longer durations, lithium may or may not be the most cost-effective choice depending on the application, particularly when considering lifetime costs. Lithium batteries are also highly configurable into a variety of string sizes and battery racks to create a wide range of voltages, power ratings, or energy increments. This allows for application-specific designs that can range from a few kilowatts with a few minutes of storage, up to multi-megawatt solutions with hours of storage that may be used at a utility substation or a wind farm.

    Lithium battery strings typically have a narrower voltage range requirement and higher minimum DC string voltage, which helps minimize the cost of the power-converter system relative to other battery technologies. Overall efficiency for an energy storage system (ESS) using lithium batteries will usually be higher than using flow or zinc-hybrid batteries. Discharge rate, climate, and duty cycle play a big role in efficiency. The duty cycle is the cycle of operation of a machine or device that produces intermittent work instead of continuous.

    For example, a lithium-based ESS rated for two hours at rated power will have an AC round-trip efficiency of 75 to 85%. However, a system rated for 30 minutes may have an efficiency in the 65 to 75% range. Of course, the smaller 30-minute battery will have a lower initial cost. All batteries are generally more efficient and have a longer life when operating for longer discharge periods.

    Over time all lithium batteries degrade, and a replenishment, replacement, and disposal strategy is necessary when designing a system for a 20-year operating life. Although the solid-state nature of lithium batteries means fewer moving parts, the relatively small building blocks mean there is a large part count that requires a more-sophisticated string monitoring and battery management system compared with flow or zinc-hybrid batteries.

    Redox-flow batteries

    NASA studied the use of redox-flow batteries (RFB) for the space program during the 1970s, and the concept of using chemical reduction and oxidation reactions for energy storage dates back even further.

    In RFBs, two chemical components are dissolved in liquids within the system, and are separated by a membrane. The membrane facilitates the ion exchange and the electric current flows, while the liquids are kept separate in anolyte and catholyte tanks. The chemical reduction and oxidation reactions that take place in these tanks store the generated energy in a liquid electrolyte solution and are what the “redox” (reduction, oxidation) name refers to.

    Similar to lithium batteries, there are multiple types of flow batteries with a variety of chemistries. Most commercial efforts for grid-scale solutions are using some form of vanadium, iron, bromine, or sodium solution.

    RFBs are unique compared to traditional batteries because the power (kW) rating of the system is based on the power stack size selected, and the energy (kWh) capacity is independently selected based on the storage tank size and volume of electrolytes in the tanks. In principle, this means that any combination of energy and power can be configured. In practice, however, the infrastructure required for pumping and managing the tanks becomes economically viable for systems with four hours or more of energy, when compared to the rated power of the power stacks.

    Many flow batteries are characterized by extremely long cycle life—tens of thousands of cycles, or (theoretically) unlimited cycle life. For example, there is no inherent degradation of the vanadium solutions as ions are exchanged between the tanks, and there is an assumed residual value of the vanadium solution at the end of life of the system. Although they typically have a higher initial cost relative to other batteries, the lifetime costs may be lower for flow batteries, especially in high-cycle applications.


    Flow batteries have a lower energy density than a comparable lithium solution and are typically characterized by a larger footprint, or the area of land required for a particular storage device or system. However, for many sites, the footprint is not a drawback or determining factor of the viability of a project. For example, utility-owned property can usually accommodate stacked tanks (15 to 20 feet high).

    In these cases, four-hour flow battery systems can have a smaller footprint than a comparable lithium-based storage system. The weight of lithium battery containers typically makes stacking impractical.

    There are some misconceptions that since flow batteries are sized for four hours or more of discharge at rated power, they cannot perform frequency regulation or other short duration tasks. In fact, flow batteries are ideally suited for long-duration peak shifting (which is altering the time of day at which electricity is used to reduce “demand charge” on electricity use) or demand-shifting duties, and with the short-duration services. In this stacked use case, the high cycle life is highly valuable. The round-trip AC-to-AC efficiency for flow batteries is typically 65 to 75%. This is a bit lower for higher charge and discharge rates, and vice versa.

    Zinc-hybrid batteries

    Zinc-hybrid technology is among the latest advanced chemistries with early field results in grid-scale storage use cases. The first rechargeable zinc-based batteries came in 1996 and were eventually used to power small and mid-sized buses in Singapore. The proliferation of electric vehicles and distributed energy resources have ramped up the demand for battery systems that are affordable to produce.

    Zinc-hybrid technology also holds the promise of a purpose-built battery for grid-scale solutions that could leapfrog competitive technologies with regard to cost. Zinc is widely available and typically less expensive than the materials used to create lithium-ion or flow batteries. Zinc-hybrid batteries are at an earlier stage in the commercialization process, so their costs have further to fall than most other emerging battery technology solutions.

    In zinc-hybrid batteries, a porous anode is formed by a mass of zinc particles and then saturated with an electrolyte during discharge. Hydroxyl ions formed at the cathode by an oxygen reaction move into the zinc paste to form zincate, which releases electrons that travel to the cathode. Similar to flow batteries, the technology lends itself to four-hour type solutions—four hours of energy for discharge at rated power.

    Similar to lithium batteries, the system’s 20-year design life must account for degradation of the batteries including replenishment, replacement, and disposal of batteries as the capacity fades. The overall efficiency for zinc-hybrid batteries is typically lower than lithium, averaging at 65 to 70%. This is also slightly lower for higher charge and discharge rates, and higher for lower charge and discharge rates.

    Zinc-hybrid batteries are expected to be competitive in renewables applications, such as when co-located with solar-power projects. They also work well with peak-shaving applications that have a daily charge and discharge cycle. Both zinc-hybrid and flow batteries tend to have a wider DC voltage operating range and require marginally more costly power-converter systems compared to lithium-ion solutions.

    Choosing the right battery

    Picking an ideal battery application and designing the best system and operating strategy can make or break the economics of an energy storage project. Learning about the benefits and challenges of the different commercially available battery technologies is key to making the right choice.

    While no one knows for sure which chemistries will emerge as winning solutions in the future, it seems likely that a variety of options will remain. End users will want to work with turnkey providers and integrators that can help configure a battery energy storage system that is right for their project.


    Battery Storage

    Electrical Infrastructure

    Electrical Infrastructure

    Electrical Infrastructure

    Electrical Infrastructure

    Electrical Infrastructure big enough to cope, small enough to care

    Established in 1977 by Mike Wilsmore and Derek Earby, the founding directors saw an opportunity in the high voltage installation market, where we could offer an alternative to the local electricity board for private customers.

    The initial projects were small scale, installing 11,000 volt and 415/230 volt distribution systems to companies based in and around South West England.

    The scope of this work expanded quickly, enabling us to grow rapidly. Today we can manage any electrical installation project up to and including 132,000 volts, from initial design to final commissioning and testing, Powersystems can offer the complete electrical distribution package.

    Electric Grid

    An electrical gridelectric grid or power grid, is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers. It consists of:

    Power stations may be located (for example) near a fuel source or at a dam site (to take advantage of renewable energy sources), and are often located away from heavily-populated areas. The electric power which is generated is stepped up to a higher voltage at which it connects to the electric power transmission net.

    The bulk-power transmission network will move the power long distances, sometimes across international boundaries, until it reaches its wholesale customer (usually the organisation that owns the local electric power distribution network).

    On arrival at a substation, the power will be stepped down from a transmission level voltage to a distribution-level voltage. As it exits the substation, it enters the distribution wiring. Finally, upon arrival at the service location, the power is stepped down again from the distribution voltage to the required service voltage(s).

    Electrical grids vary in size from covering a single building through national grids (which cover whole countries) to transnational grids (which can cross continents).

    Although electrical grids are widespread, as of 2016 1.4 billion people were not connected to an electricity grid.

    Electrical grids can be prone to malicious intrusion or attack; thus, there is a need for electric grid security. Also as electric grids modernize and introduce computers, cyber threats also start to become a security risk. Particular concerns relate to the more complex computer systems needed to manage grids with a large proportion of intermittent renewable-energy sources in the electricity mix.






    Short Term Operating Reserve (STOR)

    Short Term Operating Reserve (STOR) Helping balance supply and demand to the UK grid

    The UK during certain periods has significant electricity demand from the National Grid, and with such demand can come instability.

    The grid experiences peaks and troughs in its electricity usage, with higher than forecast usage causing problems for stability, along with the uncertainty of the generation availability.

    Deployment of Short Term Operating Reserve generation

    In order to balance these possible scenarios, fast on-demand generation is required.  The way of achieving this is through the deployment of Short Term Operating Reserve generation (STOR), a balancing service, where the provider delivers standby or emergency power when required.

    This differs from large scale renewable generation which delivers electricity to the grid inconsistently, due to periodic unavailability of its renewable source.

    Short Term Operating Reserve Generators

    STOR generators are required to generate power within a stipulated time period contracted to National Grid.

    Powersystems are experts in STOR
    Connecting Short Term Reserve to the grid

    Powersystems UK have been at the forefront of connecting Short Term Operating Reserve to the grid, having carried out the grid connection and electrical balance of plant works for one of the UK’s first commercial STOR project in Trumfleet, in 2010.  Following on from this success Powersystems has worked with a number of STOR operators where we have carried out further connections to grid and balance of plant work.  In addition, Powersystems is currently working with various partners that are able to carry out a full Engineering Procurement Construct (EPC) package which can include civil works, design and construction, supply, installation and commissioning of generation plant, mechanical and HV/LV electrical services.

    We have assisted our customers in delivering these projects across many platforms of the development, whether it be:

    • Client Grid connection applications.
    • As an Independent Connections Provider, (ICP) in the design, procurement and delivery of the electrical grid connection for the sites.
    • A specialist electrical contractor, designing and building the sites private High Voltage and high power Low Voltage electrical systems.
    • As the Principal Contractor on a complete Engineering, Procurement and Construction, (EPC) contract basis, where all the Civil, Electrical and Mechanical elements of the STOR site are designed, installed, constructed and commissioned by Powersystems, with specialist sub-contractors awarded and managed within the ‘Turnkey’ contract.

    Fuel types to power the Short Term Operating Reserve (STOR) prime movers have evolved over the years, from Diesel to more environmentally Bio-Diesels, Natural Gas and Bio-Gas. At each evolution Powersystems have developed alongside the Client, the required engineering solutions needed to successfully run the STOR plants.

    Whatever the prime mover technology or fuel source, Powersystems in house engineering and site based operational staff are able to advise, design or partial build electrical, or all aspects of the STOR PowerStation.

    Renewable Energy

    Renewable Energy

    Renewable Generation

    Connecting Green Energy to the Grid

    Powersystems remains at the forefront of the Renewable Generation Industry

    With so many projects successfully constructed and exporting power to the grid, whether requiring a turnkey installation, electrical infrastructure or grid connection, Powersystems are an experienced partner in all forms of renewable energy generation projects.

    Growing environmental awareness has heightened interest in all forms of renewable energy. Powersystems remain at the forefront of this growing industry with expertise in:


    Powersystems UK projects help connect 27% of all U.K. land based Wind Farm generation

    Landfill gas

    Landfill gas

    From the experience gained from 10 years completing the grid connections and electrical installations for Landfill gas sites, Powersystems moved to offer the complete turnkey solution incorporating the required civil works and mechanical installation in addition to the previously offered services.

    Such projects were managed under an Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) basis with Powersystems managing the construction as principle contractor under the Construction Design and Management Regulations (CDM).

    Projects completed in this manner ranged from single engine “minigen” sites to 30MW multiple engine sites.

    Wind Farm projects ranging from 1-60 turbines

    Wind Farms

    Experience in the design and installation of high voltage electrical infrastructure has placed Powersystems in a position ideally suited to carryout wind farm electrical balance of plant contracts. Since our first wind farm installation at Goonhilly Downs in 1992 we have been actively involved with wind farm projects ranging from single turbines to 60 plus turbine sites.

    Powersystems engineers are experienced in the design, specification, installation and commissioning of wind farm switchgear, transformers, cable infrastructure, earth systems and SCADA cabling, enabling the complete installation to be carried out.

    On each site Powersystems carry out grid connection compliance studies, ensuring that the requirements of the connection or grid code are met.

    In addition to the on-site electrical balance of plant works Powersystems can provide grid connections to wind farm sites, and have done so in some extremely remote and challenging locations.

    Solar Parks

    Solar Parks

    There has been a large uptake in the number of solar parks being granted planning consent in the UK, and Powersystems has been involved with many of these providing grid connection schemes at 11kV & 33kV. Each scheme is designed by our team of engineers and covers the requirements of the DNO substation, site wide earthing and cabling to the point of connection. The whole process is managed, from initial connection application to final energisation and adoption.

    Powersystems can perform much of the onsite work as well:

    • Installation of HV cabling and terminations
    • Design and Build of Intake Substation
    • Incorporation of G59 protection
    • Specification and supply of Inverter Transformers
    • Site Earthing
    • Final Test and Commissioning
    Anaerobic Digestion

    Anaerobic Digestion Generation

    Powersystems have connected Anaerobic digestion generation plants powered from commercial food waste, energy crops, dairy, pig & poultry waste in the farm based sectors.

    We have worked alongside the major technology providers in delivering both grid connections and onsite customer works. Typically these schemes will be cable connected to the local distribution high voltage network and electrically metered onsite, from there a bespoke site distribution system is designed and installed to meet the AD Plants requirements. This system would usually be comprised of a generation transformer and main Low Voltage (LV) distribution board, providing electrical circuits to the site generation and AD Plant controls.

    Powersystems as part of the installation can specify and install the necessary Feed In Tariff (FIT) meters and auxiliary supply meters to enable generation and auxiliary loads to be appropriately allocated. To date Powersystems have connected over 97 anaerobic digestion sites throughout the UK with many more coming online in the near future.

    Hydro power

    Hydro Power

    Hydro power is the oldest form of renewable energy and Powersystems have been involved in constructing the electrical infrastructure on small scale hydro schemes since the late 80’s.
    Projects completed include 500kW “Run of the river” schemes and multiple turbine dam storage schemes. In both types of projects Powersystems have completed the full electrical installation package for the sites including:

    • Design
    • Powerhouse Fitout
    • Station Transformers
    • Main LV Switchboards
    • Power and Control Cabling
    • Turbine Control Panels
    • PLC SCADA Systems
    • Head Pond Level Sensors
    • Test and Commissioning
    Bio Fuels

    Bio Fuel technology

    In an ever-increasing bid to fulfill the UK’s requirements for new renewable energy fuel sources, Powersystems have assisted customers in the design and construction of generation plants powered by Bio-Fuels. Typically the generation of these schemes are via reciprocating prime movers, therefore the years of experience gained in Landfill and AD Generation sectors gives Powersystems a lead when advising customers on all aspects, from site layout to electrical infrastructure, ensuring both best design practice and cost effective solutions.

    Although currently an infant market, we see this as a sector that will grow and plan to be at the head of any expansion, as Bio-Fuel technologies develop.

    Waste to energy

    Waste to energy

    With an ever changing waste management industry, government regulations have forced the market to look at new ways of managing the UK’s waste. A result of which has been the design and construction of cleaner more efficient Energy From Waste (EFW) plants.

    Such plants can generate electrical power via steam driven turbines or develop a ‘Syngas’ for turbine or reciprocating generation. In either form Powersystems have assisted customers in cost effective grid connections and onsite electrical infrastructure.

    Tidal projects

    Tidal projects

    The UK has one of the largest marine energy resources in the world, estimated to be more than 10GW. This along with the predictability of tidal power makes it a form of Renewable Energy that is highly attractive to grid operators as fossil fuel back-up plants are not required. To support this emerging technology, tidal projects will be eligible for five Renewable Obligation Certificates (ROCs) from the UK Government for projects installed and operational by 2017.

    Powersystems are actively involved with the construction of the electricity infrastructure to connect marine turbines to the onshore grid. Recent project successes include the 400kW Delta Stream demonstration device in Ramsey Sound, Pembrokeshire, a demonstration device due to be in service for 12 months.

    Powersystems have connected 65 MW of Anaerobic Digestion for commercial and energy customers

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